P  R  E  S  S,   I  N  C  .

    SYNOPSIS

    On April 20-21, 2012, the IHRAAM-sponsored Conference
    FROM CIVIL RIGHTS TO HUMAN RIGHTS AND SELFDETERMINATION?
    sought to catalyze a turning point in the African American struggle.

    The Civil Rights movement that MartinLuther King assumed, five
    decades ago, would be “not long” in bringing “freedom” is now
    history. Affirmative action has shot its bolt. While its achievements
    are evident—Black faces appear inmainstream politics, academia,
    corporations and the media—the African American people at large
    face ongoing discrimination, mass incarceration and unemployment,
    prohibitive voting laws, growing destitution and legalized vigilante
    terrorism.

    The IHRAAM Conference provided a major mechanism to
    engage leading African American political thinkers in examining
    the potential that international human rights law and norms, and
    best state practices on internal self-determination might hold for
    African American collective development within the United States
    in the future.

    Key representatives from the African American popular
    leadership and intelligentsia flew into Chicago from all corners–-
    California, Georgia, Illinois, Mississippi, New York, South Carolina,
    Washington, and Virginia—to assess, in this context, where the
    African American struggle had been, where it was now, and the
    direction it had to go to move forward.

    Speakers focused on the key issues of the recognition,
    maintenance and protection of African Americans’ collective
    identity, their need for collective social and economic
    development, and the significance of a territorial homeland.
    Most importantly, they agreed on the need for a democratically
    empowered political body such as a Consultative Assembly
    to specifically represent and act on behalf of the unique needs
    of African Americans. As a historically oppressed people,
    African Americans have the right to self-determination.

    IHRAAM is an African-American-founded international NGO in
    Consultative Status with the United Nations.  More information on
    IHRAAM is available at http://www.ihraam.org.
     
    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    FOREWORD
    Is the African American Struggle Heading in a New
    Direction?

    Opening Address
    Dr. Farid I. Muhammad

    Memorial Tribute to Dr. Y. N. Kly
    Diana Collier Kly

    PANEL ONE: CIVIL RIGHTS: NECESSARY BUT NOT
    SUFFICIENT?

    Understanding Who You Are
    Cynthia McKinney

    From Hallowed to Hollowed Victories:
    Black Civil Rights and the Post-Racialism Imagination
    Dr. Tyson King-Meadows

    Dying While Black
    Prof. Vernalia Randall

    PANEL TWO: INTERNAL SELF-DETERMINATION FOR
    HISTORICALLY OPPRESSED PEOPLES

    External Self-determination and Internal Self-
    determination in Quebec, Canada
    Prof. Daniel Turp

    Seeking Sovereignty: The Need for an Identifiable
    Place
    Dr. Ava Muhammad

    Using International Human Rights to Protect Indigeneity
    Prof. Carla Pratt

    KEYNOTE ADDRESS:
    African Americans’ Right to Self-Determination
    Francis A. Boyle

    PANEL THREE: COLLECTIVE EMPOWERMENT,
    INSTITUTIONS, JURISDICTIONS...

    National Survey on African American Self-Determination
    Dr. Farid I. Muhammad

    Do We Need Self-Determining Institutions?
    Atty. Chokwe Lumumba

    The Land is the Key
    Dr. John Boyd

    Policy Drives African American Conditions
    Henry L. English

    Economics of Self-Determination:
    The Afrikan Descendant Nation in America
    Kamm Howard

    PANEL FOUR: USING THE UN TO ADVANCE AFRICAN
    AMERICAN CONCERNS

    Using the UN to Pressure America
    Atty. Standish Willis

    Disya We Land:  Continued Self-Determination of the
    Gullah'Geechee Nation
    Queen Quet

    RECOMMENDED READING
    Minority Rights: Some Questions & Answers
    Y.N. Kly & Diana Kly

    CONTRIBUTORS

    SPEAKER & MODERATOR BIOs
    (listed alphabetically)


    John W. Boyd, Jr. (Speaker)

    John W. Boyd, Jr. is a fourth-generation black farmer, businessman, and civil rights activist. As the
    founder and President of  National Black Farmers Association (NBFA), he works to encourage the
    participation of small and disadvantaged farmers in gaining access to resources of state and federal
    programs administered by the United States Department of Agriculture.  Boyd founded the NBFA after
    encountering the US Department of Agriculture's discriminatory practices first-hand and meeting many
    more black farmers who shared this experience. Boyd helped to bring the plight of black farmers to the
    nation's attention by leading NBFA members in a march on the White House, meeting with President
    Clinton, and to testifying before Congress. He has been featured in The Washington Post, "60 Minutes,"
    "Nightline," CNN and as ABC News Tonight's "Person of the Week." He is a past nominee for the
    NAACP's highest honor, The Springarn Award, and currently ranks as one of Ebony Magazine's most
    influential African Americans.

    Francis A. Boyle (Banquet speaker)

    Francis Boyle was responsible for drafting the Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989, the
    American implementing legislation for the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention. He served on the Board
    of Directors of Amnesty International (1988-1992), and represented Bosnia-Herzegovina at the World
    Court where he argued and won two World Court Orders for Bosnia
    on the basis of the 1948 Genocide Convention. He served as legal adviser to the Palestinian Delegation
    to the Middle East peace negotiations from 1991 to 1993. In 2007, he delivered the Bertrand Russell
    Peace Lectures. Professor Boyle teaches international law at the University of Illinois, Champaign and
    is author of, inter alia, The Future of International Law and
    American Foreign Policy, Foundations of World Order, The Criminality of Nuclear Deterrence, Palestine,
    Palestinians and International Law, Destroying World Order, Biowarfare & Terrorism, Tackling America’
    s Toughest Questions, The Tamil Genocide by Sri Lanka and The Palestinian Right of Return Under
    International Law. He holds a Doctor of Law Magna Cum Laude as well as a Ph.D. in Political Science,
    both from Harvard University.

    Musa Dan-Fodio (Moderator)

    As a trial lawyer and former Managing Attorney at Hyatt Legal Services, Musa Dan-Fodio has
    successfully represented the concerns of the African-American community by advising his clients on
    how to empower themselves by utilizing both the domestic and international legal systems. Musa Dan-
    Fodio received a Doctorate of International Law degree at Barrington
    University/ IHRAAM Institute for International Legal Studies, supervised by Dr. Yussuf Kly; a Juris Doctor
    from John Marshall Law School; a Masters of International Business Administration studies from the
    Monterey Institute of International Studies; and a Bachelor of Science degree at the University of
    Wisconsin-Milwaukee. He is admitted to practice law in the U.S. Court of Appeals, U.S. District Court,
    and Georgia Supreme Court. He has served as a delegate to the United Nations World Conference
    Against Racism; a speaker at the First International Conference on the Right to Self-Determination; a
    Human Rights Defender, UN Commission on Human Rights; Legal Advisor, Somali-American Trade and
    Economic Council; Board Member, African Trade Center, Inc.; 1000 Lawyers For Justice; and a
    presenter at the “Islamic West Africa’s Legacy Of Literacy & Music To America and The World”
    Conference. Currently, he serves as a Human Rights Advocate on matters affecting victims of Crimes
    Against Humanity and as a consultant for the International Human Rights Association of American
    Minorities (IHRAAM).  

    Henry L. English (Speaker)

    Henry L. English serves as the President and CEO of the Black United Fund of Illinois, which works to
    create, support, and sustain African American social, economic, cultural, and educational institutions
    and to improve the quality of life for African Americans through reliance on self-help at the local
    community level.  He is also the Chief Fiscal Officer of the PEOPLE
    Programme (Public Elected Officials and others for Policy Leadership and Exchange).  The PEOPLE
    Programme brings about the international exchange of ideas between Europe, the United States, and
    Africa to help craft programs and policy innovations that identify ways in which residents of inner city
    communities can forge relationships with people from other
    nations to advance mutually beneficial programs and policies.

    Kamm Howard (Moderator)

    Kamm operates apartment, retail, and office spaces on the south side of Chicago, Illinois. He is also a
    leading figure with the National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America (NCOBA). He has served
    on the National Board and is currently the National Co-Chair of its Legislation Commission working to
    get HR 40, the Commission to Study Reparations Proposals for
    African Americans Act, passed into law. Kamm co-founded the Amos N. Wilson Book Club and the
    Amos N. Wilson Institute.  The Institute operates as a Black think tank and means for propagating and
    testing the power theories of Dr. Amos N. Wilson. Kamm, along with Pat Hill, convened the 2011
    International Year of People of African Descent Coalition for African Descendants of Chicago also know
    as IYPAD- Chicago, with the mission “to educated, mobilize, and organize people of African descent in
    Chicago around IYPAD banner to promote the right for self-determination.”

    Tyson King-Meadows (Speaker)

    Tyson King-Meadows, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Maryland
    Baltimore County. There he also holds affiliations with the Department of Public Policy, the Department
    of Africana Studies, and the Honors College. His general field of expertise is American politics, and his
    specializations include black political engagement, racial representation, and identity group politics. He
    is author of When the Letter Betrays the Spirit: Voting Rights Enforcement and African American
    Participation from Lyndon Johnson to Barack Obama (Lexington Books/Rowman and Littlefield, 2011)
    and co-author of Devolution and Black State Legislators: Challenges and Choices in the Twenty-First
    Century (State University of New York Press, 2006). Prof. King-Meadows is president of the National
    Conference of Black Political Scientists (NCOBPS).

    Chokwe Lumumba (Speaker)

    Attorney Chokwe Lumumba is the National Chairman and a cofounder of the New Afrikan People’s
    Organization (N.A.P.O.) and has served as chairperson since its inception in 1984 having been re-
    elected to the position in 2004. On July 7, 2009, Chokwe Lumumba was seated as Ward 2 City
    Councilperson in Jackson, MS.  He has pursued human rights on the streets and in the courtroom. He
    graduated with honors from Wayne State University Law School in 1975 after finishing first in his
    Freshman law class in 1973-74. In 1977, Chokwe Lumumba briefly served as Attorney for Black
    Liberation Army Soldier, Assata Shakur, in a murder case which was dismissed in Brooklyn, New York.  
    Practicing law for more than 35 years, Lumumba is currently the senior law partner of Lumumba,
    Freelon and Associates in Jackson, MS.

    Cynthia McKinney (Speaker)

    Cynthia McKinney has made a career of speaking her mind, challenging authority, and pressing for
    government transparency and accountability.  As the first African American woman to represent
    Georgia in the United States House of Representatives, she supported the creation of a Palestinian
    State in the Israel-occupied territory, sparked controversy by criticizing American
    policy in the Middle East, and criticized the U.S. government’s response to Hurricane Katrina.  After
    serving 6 terms in the House, in 2007, she left the Democratic Party and became the Green Party
    Presidential Candidate and ran for President in 2008. Cynthia is a vocal advocate of the creation of
    peaceful US foreign policy.  She joined the Bike4Peace 2010 cyclists, and
    completed a 21-city peace tour in the United States educating urban communities in order to promote a
    more peaceful U.S. foreign policy.  She is a supporter and follower of Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad’s
    efforts to “criminalize war”, and served as an official observer at the historic Kuala Lumpur War Crimes
    Tribunal that found former President George W. Bush and former Prime Minister Tony Blair guilty of the
    crime of aggression and other crimes against the state and people of Iraq. Cynthia now travels the
    world speaking out on human rights, nature’s rights, and peace while she contemplates a return to
    politics.

    Gregory A. Mitchell (Moderator)

    Gregory Abdullah Mitchell received a Bachelor of Science in Business and Juris Doctor from Duquesne
    University.  He is admitted to Illinois Supreme Court, United States District Court of Northern District of
    Illinois, United States Bankruptcy Court of the Northern District of Illinois, and the Pennsylvania Supreme
    Court. Attorney Mitchell started his legal career as an Assistant
    District Attorney, Allegany County, Pennsylvania.  He has spent the last 25 years in private practice as a
    civil litigator gaining extensive experience in personal injury, family law, incorporation, bankruptcy,
    mediation and alternative dispute resolution, and contract litigation.  His current focus is mediation,
    alternative dispute resolution, and bankruptcy.    Over the years, Attorney Mitchell has devoted his time
    and legal expertise to various nonprofit organizations that serve minorities and protect the human
    rights of the underserved with a focus on African-Americans and Muslims.  He served as a board
    member of the Islamic Center of Cleveland; African American Historical Society of Cleveland; Cleveland
    Islamic Organizations; Cleveland Area Islamic School Project; Masjid Al-Amin; Masjid Al-Amin School;
    Universal School; Geneva Scott Outreach Services; Downtown Islamic Center; and Muslim Association
    for Civil Rights and Legal Defense. He has received numerous awards recognizing his commitment to
    community service and outreach.  

    Mary A. Mitchell (Moderator)

    Mary A. Mitchell is an editorial board member and columnist for the Chicago Sun-Times. She is a
    recipient of numerous journalism awards, including the Award of Excellence from the National
    Association of Black Journalists; the Studs Terkel Award from the Community Media Workshop; the
    Peter Lisagor Award from the Chicago Headline Club; the Phenomenal Woman Award-Media from the
    Expo for Today's Black Woman; and the Humanitarian Award from the 100 Black Men of Chicago. In
    2004, Crain's Chicago Business honored Mitchell as one of the 100 Most Influential Women in the city.
    Mitchell earned a B.A. in journalism at Columbia College Chicago. She joined the Chicago Sun-Times as
    an education writer in 1991, and has covered City Hall and the U.S. Federal Courts. Mitchell’s columns
    continually raise community awareness about important advocacy issues, including criminal justice,
    police misconduct, race relations. Mitchell’s reporting has led state legislators to strengthen laws
    protecting the rights of women and children.  Mitchell’s reporting often rallies African American readers
    to empower their communities by promoting education and by protecting the most vulnerable members
    of our society -- our children and our elderly. Her column appears on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and
    Sundays She is a frequent panelist on WTTW's Week In Review, FOX-TV, and has appeared on national
    news programs, including Meet The Press.

    Ava Muhammad (Speaker)

    Dr. Ava is the National Spokesperson for Minister Louis Farrakhan.  She received her Bachelor of Arts  
    in history from Central State University in Wilberforce, Ohio.  In 1975, she received a Juris Doctor from
    Georgetown University Law School and was admitted to the New York Bar.  Her earliest professional
    experience was in law enforcement, in the New York State Office of
    Child Support Enforcement and later served as an Assistant District Attorney in Queens, New York. In
    addition to be the author of several books and having been recognized by Essence as one of the 30
    most influential Black women in America in 2000, Dr. Muhammad is a gifted lecturer and researcher
    which has placed her in great demand among colleges, universities,
    churches, conferences and radio programs. She has addressed the National Association of Black
    Social Workers, the NAACP Leadership Conference, the Million Woman March, the 40th Anniversary of
    the March on Washington in 2003. Dr. Muhammad is the first Muslim woman in modern history to
    occupy a position of authority over a mosque anywhere in the world.  She
    served as the Nation of Islam’s Southern Regional Minister from 1998 until 2000, after she was
    appointed a National Spokesperson for the Nation of Islam, a position she continues to hold this day.  
    She is married to Darius Muhammad.  They currently reside in Chicago and are the parents of two lovely
    daughters, Sasha and Cherelle.

    Dr. Farid I. Muhammad (Speaker)

    Dr. Muhammad has represented IHRAAM in a variety of international and domestic venues. This
    includes serving as the key representative and facilitator for a 41 member IHRAAM delegation to the U.
    N. World Conference Against Racism (UN/WCAR) in Durban, South Africa, 2001.  Born, raised and
    educated in Harlem, N.Y.C., N.Y. Dr. Farid I. Muhammad currently serves as the
    Chairman of the Department of Behavioral & Social Sciences at East-West University (EWU) in Chicago,
    Illinois. He also serves as a member of the Organization of Islamic Conference’s (OIC) www.oic-oci.org
    Board of Trustees (BOT)/Board Steering Committee (BSC) and Interim Executive Council (IEC) for the
    American Islamic College (Chicago, Illinois, USA). He completed his B.A. degree in psychology at Iona
    College in New Rochelle, N.Y.; his M.A. in Clinical Psychology at Bradley University in Peoria, Illinois and
    his Ed.D. in Administration & Management at the University of Sarasota (Argosy University) in Florida. In
    1975-79, he served as Assistant Director of Adult Education and subsequently Director of the Ministry of
    Education for the Muhammad University of Islam/Sister Clara Muhammad school system Chicago,
    Illinois.  He also served as the Project Documentor and Deputy Director of the Federal Teacher Corp
    Training Program via the College of Human Learninig and Development at Governors State Univerity,
    Illinois In addition to his current administrative and academic responsibilities at EWU, he has also
    designed and managed federal projects under the U.S. Department of Education. During a twelve year
    period, these multi-million dollar projects were designed
    to help identify and train qualified first-generation and low-income high school students who needed
    socio-academic assistance in making a transition to varied institutions of higher education.

    Leonard Murray (Moderator)

    Judge Murray received a B.S. in Economics from St. Francis College and a J.D. from Northwestern
    University School of Law. Prior to receiving his education, he served in the Foreign Service of the U.S.
    Army from 1968 –1970. Judge Murray was appointed Associate Judge of the Circuit Court of Cook
    County, Illinois, in April 2007. Prior to his appointment, he worked as an attorney for Touche Ross’ Tax
    Department and in his own private law practice.  Judge Murray has served as a member of several bar
    associations and organizations, including the Chicago Bar Association, where he served as Chair of
    both the
    Election Committee and the Judicial Evaluations Committee — Appeals and as a Member of the CBA
    Board of Managers; the Illinois State Bar Association; the Cook County Bar Association; and the Board
    of Governors for the National Bar Association.   Judge Murray also served as Chair of the Executive
    Committee for the Alliance of Bar Associations for Judicial Screening and as the Chair of the Board of
    Directors of Africa International House USA, Inc. Judge Murray continues to receive numerous awards
    for his outstanding service to the legal community.

    Carla D. Pratt (Speaker)

    Carla D. Pratt is Associate Dean for Academic Affairs and Professor of Law at Penn State University,
    Dickinson School of Law where she has taught courses in Constitutional Law, Race and American Law,
    and Criminal Law.  Professor Pratt's scholarly interests examine the legal construction of racial identity
    and the role of race in the legal profession. Her research employs
    Critical Race Theory, to explore how law often unintentionally operates to perpetuate the subordination
    of racial minorities rather than achieve true equality.  Her current research project examines tribal law’
    s exclusion of blacks and posits that slaveholding Indian tribes have consistently viewed blacks as
    racially ineligible for tribal citizenship.  Prior to entering
    academia, Professor Pratt practiced civil litigation in the NJ Attorney General’s Office and the law firm
    of Drinker Biddle & Reath,, LLP in Philadelphia.  

    Queen Quet  (Speaker)

    As the first Queen Mother and official spokesperson for the Gullah/Geechee Nation, Queen Quet spoke
    on behalf of her people before the United Nations in Genevé, Switzerland.  In 2008, she was recorded at
    UNESCO Headquarters in Paris, France at a United Nations Conference to have the human rights story
    of the Gullah/Geechee people archived for the United Nations. In 2009, she was invited by the Office of
    the High Commissioner of the United Nations to come and present before the newly founded “Minority
    Forum” as a representative of the Gullah/Geechee Nation and the International Human Rights
    Association for American Minorities (IHRAAM). Queen Quet has won numerous awards for her
    scholarship, writings, artistic presentation, activism, cultural continuation and environmental
    preservation including: the United States Jefferson Award for community service, the Jean Laney Folk
    Heritage Award for Gullah Advocacy from the state of South Carolina, numerous Woman of Distinction
    Awards, the National Black Herstory Award, and the “Preserving Our Places in History Lifetime
    Achievement Award” from the South Carolina African American Heritage Commission.

    Vernellia Randall (Speaker)

    Professor at the School of Law since 1990, Vernellia Randall writes extensively on and speaks
    internationally about race, women, and health care. She is the recipient of the Ohio Commission on
    Minority Health Chairman’s Award.  Professor Randall provided public health nursing services and
    served as an administrator for a statewide health program in Alaska. Involved in
    public health work for more than 15 years, Professor Randall focused on eliminating disparities in
    health care for minorities and the poor. Professor Randall has also served as a grant reviewer for the
    National Institute of Health. She has been recognized in Who's Who in the World since 1995 and Who's
    Who in the United States since 1998. Professor Randall is the
    editor and webmaster for four academic websites on race, health care, gender, and academic support.  
    She is the author of “Dying While Black”.  More importantly, she is the proud mother of her adult sons,
    Tshaka and Issa and the Nah-Nah of Ajani and Makai.

    Daniel Turp (Speaker)

    Daniel Turp studied law at the Université de Montréal and the University of Ottawa, and received his
    legal license in Sherbrooke. He gained a Master's degree at the Université de Montréal and Doctorate  
    (summa cum laude) from Pantheon-Assas Paris II University. He is a professor at the Faculty of Law of
    the Université de Montréal since 1982. He lectures in the area of Public International Law, International
    and Constitutional Human Rights Law and Advanced Constitutional Law. Professor Turp served as
    member of the House of Commons of Canada for Beauharnois-Salaberry from 1997 to 2000 and was
    the Bloc Québécois' critic for Foreign and Intergovernmental Affairs. Professor Turp was elected
    President of International Relations Committee of the Parti Québécois on February 10th, 2002 and is
    now a member of its National Bureau. He has published extensively in the areas of international and
    constitutional law as well on Québec and Canada's political future.  His latest legal and political essays
    have been published under the titles The Right to Choose: Essays on Québec's Right to Self-
    Determination and The Muzzled Nation : Plan B or Ottawa's Offensive against Québec.

    Standish Willis (Speaker)

    Stan Willis practices law in Chicago, Illinois, specializing in personal injury, criminal defense, and
    federal rights cases.  Stan earned a baccalaureate and masters degree from The University of Chicago
    and later studied graduate economics at the University of Illinois-Chicago and earned a Jurist Doctorate
    from The Illinois Institute of Technology’s Chicago Kent College of Law. During his over 25 years of legal
    practice, Stan advocated for the human rights of African Americans in US. courts and before
    international bodies including  the United Nations’ Committee to Eliminate Racial Discrimination (CERD);
    the Organization of American States’ Inter-American Commission on Human Rights; and submitted
    reports as part of its Universal
    Periodic Review (UPR) of the United States.  He also co-founded and co-chaired Black People Against
    Police Torture “BPAPT”, a grass-root, community-based organization to insure justice in the Chicago
    police torture cases, and to build a Human  Rights movement within the African American community.  
    He also helped draft and successfully lobby for a bill titled “The Illinois Torture Inquiry and Relief
    Commission Bill” to create the Torture Commission, that would have the authority to review the cases
    of those 24 torture victims who remain in prison.


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    WHAT DID AFRICAN AMERICANS HAVE IN MIND WHEN THEY MARCHED FOR "FREEDOM" ... ?
FROM CIVIL RIGHTS TO
HUMAN RIGHTS AND
SELF-DETERMINATION?
Proceedings of the IHRAAM
Chicago Conference 2012
ISBN: 978-0-9853353-4-2
191 pages   $20.00
GET THE EBOOK BELOW
ISBN : 978-0-9853353-5-9
Copublished with the International Human
Rights Association of American Minorities
(IHRAAM)
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An international NGO in
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